История открытия и изучения первого манихейского храма в Сибири. Часть 2

Авторы

  • Игорь Леонидович Кызласов

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.52967/akz2021.4.14.64.91

Ключевые слова:

археология, история науки, научные подходы, археологические методы, сырцовые храмы, сибирско-тюркское манихейство

Аннотация

Данная статья – продолжение первой части, опубликованной в предыдущем номере журнала. Полевой опыт, полученный при раскопках культовых зданий на городище Ак-Бешим в Кыргызстане в 1953–1954 гг., был перенесен Л.Р. Кызласовым в Южную Сибирь и успешно применен в 1971–1981 гг. Был обнаружен и изучен первый манихейский храм в котловине Соргá (Хакасия), а затем и целая серия подобных сакральных построек в низовьях р. Уйбат, которая уже с 1974 г. раскапывалась в течение 8-ми полевых сезонов. Проведение крупномасштабных, длительных раскопочных работ во втором обнаруженном храмово-монастырском центре, обработка их результатов и постоянный сравнительный и обобщающий анализ всех материалов, полученных полевыми исследованиями, с годами привели к точному религиозному определению всех 12-ти изученных храмов и святилищ. Определяющими оказались идущие из древности взгляды, проявившиеся в храмовом зодчестве, – почитание 7 небесных светил привело к выработке и канонизации архитектурно-планиграфического символизма культовых сооружений. Они отличались по форме для каждого из этих небесных тел и сакрально значимых космических явлений. Перечень геометрического многообразия планировок манихейских храмов, содержащийся в сочинении ал-Масуди (Х в.), удалось подтвердить и дополнить свидетельствами аш-Шахристани (XII в.) и ад-Димешки (XIV в.). Эти данные позволили Л.Р. Кызласову во всех основных деталях понять встреченное им при раскопках ранее невиданное разнообразие устройства храмовых зданий и святилищ обоих культовых центров Хакасии. Тогда и поныне манихейские храмы были и остаются неизвестными археологам – наука о древностях раскрыла совершенно новую страницу не только в сибиреведении, но и в тюркологическом востоковедении в целом.

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Опубликован

2021-12-27

Как цитировать

Кызласов, И. Л. (2021). История открытия и изучения первого манихейского храма в Сибири. Часть 2. Археология Казахстана, 14(4), 64–91. https://doi.org/10.52967/akz2021.4.14.64.91

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Вопросы археологии